Keto nwere ike inyere ADHD aka?

Nri ketogenic nwere ike inyere ADHD aka site n'ịgwọ ọtụtụ akụkụ nke pathology dị n'okpuru ebe a chọpụtara na ọ na-akpata mgbaàmà. Ebe ndị a gụnyere glucose hypometabolism, neurotransmitter adịghị mma, ụbụrụ neurotrophic na-enweta obere ụbụrụ, mbufụt, na nrụgide oxidative. Nri ketogenic emeziri nke ọma nwekwara ike imeziwanye ọnọdụ nri ma na-agwọ erughị eru nke cofactor hụrụ na ndị ADHD.

Okwu Mmalite

A na-ahụta ọrịa nlebara anya deficit (ADD) na nlebara anya adịghị ike hyperactivity (ADHD) ka mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na-emetụta ya na 80% nke ikpe. Otú ọ dị, dị ka ọ dị na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nile, gburugburu ebe obibi nke na-agbanye mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ndị ahụ bụ ihe dị ike nke a na-akpọ epigenetics. Na ụdị ndụ, nri, mmega ahụ, ikpughe anyanwụ, gburugburu ebe mgbakasị ahụ, nsị bụ ihe na-akpali akpali epigenetic. Nke pụtara na ha nwere ike ime ka mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ụfọdụ kwupụtakwuo onwe ha ma ndị ọzọ na-egosipụta onwe ha ntakịrị. Ya mere, ihe dị ka nri ketogenic, nke bụ ihe oriri na-edozi ahụ dị ike na epigenetic, nwere ike inye aka belata ma ọ bụ belata ụfọdụ mgbaàmà nke ADHD.

Ma ka m doo anya. Enweghị RCT na-egosi na nri ketogenic na-enyere aka na ADHD na ADD. Ma ha nwere ike na-abịa ngwa ngwa. Ka ihe akaebe na-aga n'ihu na-arị elu, mmasị na ego na RCT nwere ike ịdị. Ọ bụ ezie na anyị agaghị ahụ ka a na-eme ha nke ọma dị ka anyị ga-eme maka ọgwụ ndị nwere nnukwu uru. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọ bụrụ na ịchọọ Reddit maka ADHD, ADD, na Keto, ị ga-enweta ọtụtụ ndị na-ekerịta akụkọ ha na nri ketogenic enyerela ha aka. Ị nwere ike ịgụ ụfọdụ n'ime ha Ebe a. Ma dị ka ọtụtụ ndị jụrụ na mbụ, ọ ga-abụ na ị bịarutere na ibe a na-ajụ ajụjụ a "Keto nwere ike inyere ADHD aka?"

Blọọgụ blọgụ a ga-enyocha ụfọdụ usoro nke nri ketogenic nwere ike inye aka gwọọ ụfọdụ mgbaàmà nke ADHD na ADD. N'okwu ndị gara aga, anyị nyochara ka nri ketogenic si emeso akụkụ anọ dị n'okpuru nke pathologies, n'ozuzu ya. Ị nwere ike ịgụ akwụkwọ ozi ndị a dị ntakịrị ma na-enye ihe ọmụma Ebe a, Ebe a, na Ebe a. Na post a, anyị ga-enyocha akụkụ anọ ndị a nke pathology nke a na-ahụ na ADHD na ADD wee chọpụta ma nri ketogenic nwere ike imeziwanye ihe mgbaàmà nwere ike isi na mpaghara ndị a na-adịghị arụ ọrụ pụta:

  • Hypometabolism nke glucose
  • Mmetụta neurotransmitter
  • mbufụt
  • oxidative nchegbu

Na blọgụ blọgụ a, m ga-agbasa ebe ọgwụgwọ ndị a nwere ike ịdị ntakịrị iji tinye ozi zuru oke gbasara ihe na-akpata ụbụrụ neurotrophic (BDNF) yana ọrụ sistemu ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ na ADHD/ADD. Ha abụọ bụ ihe dị mkpa iji nyochaa ka ị na-agbalị ịza ma nri keto nwere ike inye aka na ADHD na ADD.

Agaghị m abanye na mgbaàmà ma ọ bụ nchoputa nchọpụta nke ADHD n'ụzọ zuru ezu na blọọgụ a. Achọghị ka ọ bụrụ ozi n'ụzọ ahụ, na enwere ọtụtụ akụkọ na ịntanetị na-enye ozi a. Ọ bụrụ na ịchọtala blọgụ a, ọ bụ n'ihi na ị maara ihe ADHD na ADD bụ, na ị nwere ike na-achọ ụzọ isi gwọọ onwe gị ma ọ bụ onye ị hụrụ n'anya.

Ị nwere ike ịnọ na-eche ma ị nwere ike ịgwọ ADHD na-enweghị ọgwụ na-akpali akpali. Ma ọ bụ ị nwere ike na-enyocha ma ịnakwere nri ketogenic ma ọ bụ na ị gaghị ekwe ka ị nweta obere ọgwụ na-akpali akpali. Obere ọgwụ nwere ike ịba uru, ọkachasị ebe ọgwụ mgbaka na-emebi nri.

Ọgwụ mgbakasị ahụ, dị ka ndị a na-eji agwọ ADHD na ADD, na-ebelata nri ndị a:

  • magnesium
  • Iron
  • Icheta
  • Omega 3s
  • B1, B2, B3, B6 na B12
  • zinc
  • CoQ10

Mbelata nke ihe oriri na-edozi ahụ sitere na iji ọgwụ na-ejikọta ya site na nkwụsị agụụ nke ahụrụ na ọgwụ ADHD na ADD. Mbelata agụụ nke sitere na iji ọgwụ eme ihe nwere ike ime ka gị ma ọ bụ onye ị hụrụ n'anya ghara iri nri nke ọma iji mejupụta mmecha ndị a. Ị nwere ike ịchọrọ inwe ike ịṅụ ọgwụ na-akpali akpali maka nke a naanị. Ndepụta a dị n'elu nke ụkọ nri dị mkpa ma na-emetụta kpọmkwem ka ụbụrụ gị nwere ike isi rụọ ọrụ. Ma ụbụrụ gị nwere ike ịgbanye ikike ikwu okwu n'etiti neurons, mee neurotransmitters, belata mbufụt, na ịrụzi onwe ya niile dabere na oke nri ndị ahụ edepụtara n'elu.

Amamihe, amam.

Ị nwere ike na-agụ blọọgụ a n'ihi na ị nwere naanị ADHD ma ọ bụ ADD, ma ọ bụ ị nwere ike na-agụ blọgụ a n'ihi na ị nwere ADHD na ọrịa ndị ọzọ na-akpata nsogbu nke ị na-achọ enyemaka. Ọtụtụ ndị okenye nwere ADHD na-ata ahụhụ site na ọnọdụ comorbid, nke gụnyere:

  • nsogbu mmadụ na-emegide ọha (14-24%)
    • Mara: N'ime ụmụaka, ihe a na-achọpụta na-abụkarị Ọrịa Mmegide-Nsogbu. Ọ bụrụ na ọ na-aga n'ihu n'afọ 18 gara aga, nchọpụta ahụ na-agbanwe gaa na PD antisocial
  • nsogbu ịkpa oke mmadụ (14%)
  • nsogbu na-emetụta nwere ịda mbà n'obi (20%)
  • ọrịa bipolar (20%)
  • nchegbu (ihe ruru 50%)
  • social phobia (32%)
  • ọgụ ụjọ (15%)
  • nsogbu nke uche-mmanye (20%)
  • iji ọgwụ eme ihe (20-30%)

N'agbanyeghị ihe mere ị na-agụ blọgụ a, enwere m olileanya na site na njedebe, ị ga-aghọta nke ọma ka nri ketogenic nwere ike isi bụrụ ọgwụgwọ bụ isi ma ọ bụ mgbakwunye maka mgbaàmà ADHD ma ọ bụ ADD gị.

ADHD na hypometabolism

Hypometabolism bụ okwu anyị na-eji kọwaa akụkụ ụbụrụ nke na-adịghị eji ume nke ọma (hypo=low; metabolism=use of energy). Ndị nwere ADHD nwere akụkụ nke ụbụrụ na-adịghị arụ ọrụ nke ọma ma chọpụta na ha nwere ụbụrụ hypometabolism na akụkụ ụfọdụ. A na-ahụ hypometabolism na ụbụrụ ADHD na prefrontal cortex (nke kachasị aka nri), caudate nucleus, na cingulate ihu. Anyị nwekwara ike ịhụ mmetụta zuru oke na nnabata nke glucose na ụbụrụ ADHD nke ndị toro eto nwere ihe mgbaàmà nke hyperactivity.

Metabolism nke ụbụrụ ụbụrụ zuru ụwa ọnụ bụ 8.1% na ndị okenye nwere hyperactivity karịa na njikwa nkịtị. 

Zametkin, AJ, Nordahl, TE, Gross, M., King, AC, Semple, WE, Rumsey, J., … & Cohen, RM (1990). Metabolism nke cerebral glucose na ndị okenye nwere hyperactivity nke mmalite nwata. DOI: http://doi.org/10.15844/pedneurbriefs-4-11-4

N'ime ọmụmụ anụmanụ, otu n'ime usoro nke methylphenidate (nke a na-ere dị ka Ritalin na aha ọgwụ ndị ọzọ) bụ na ọgwụ na-eme ka mmụba nke glucose na ụbụrụ. Nsogbu na glucose hypometabolism na mpaghara ụbụrụ ndị a kpọtụrụ aha na-adị na ụmụaka, ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma na ndị okenye. Ndị okenye achọpụtara na ADHD dị ka ụmụaka nwere mpaghara glucose hypometabolism na ụbụrụ dị ka ndị okenye.

Enwere ọbụna ihe akaebe na mgbanwe dị iche iche nke mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa bụ ihe kpatara glucose hypometabolism na-eme, kpọmkwem na arụ ọrụ nke ụfọdụ ndị na-anabata ihe dị mkpa dị ka GLUT3. Mgbe GLUT3 na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, ọ na-edozi nnabata nke glucose na neurons, a na-ahụkwa ya na axon na dendrites. Ma n'ime ndị nwere ADHD, anyị na-ahụ na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa polymorphisms na-emetụta ike GLUT3 ịrụ ọrụ nke ọma yana na nke a nwere ike ịbụ ihe na-ebute nsogbu mbụ neurocognitive na-eche na ọ ga-enye aka na ADHD.

Kedu ka nri ketogenic si enyere ụbụrụ hypometabolism na ADHD aka

Hmmm. Ọ gaghị adị mma ma ọ bụrụ na enwere mmanụ ọzọ maka ụbụrụ ADHD/ADD? Kedu nke na-adabereghị na glucose ma ọ bụ na-emeri ndị na-ebu GLUT3 na-ezighi ezi? Daalụ, enwere! Ọ na-eme ka ọ bụrụ nri ketogenic.

Nri ketogenic na-enye mmanụ ọzọ maka ụbụrụ a maara dị ka ketones. Ketones ndị a na-abanye n'ụbụrụ ozugbo dịka isi iyi mmanụ ọkụ. Ọ nweghị ụgbọ njem GLUT mara mma achọrọ. Ketones na-eji ndị na-ebugharị monocarboxylate (MCTs), nke ị na-enweta ọtụtụ ihe site na nri abụba dị mma na nri ketogenic.

Ihe nzuzu bụ na ketones abụghị naanị na-enyere mitochondria dị ugbu a aka ịrụ ọrụ nke ọma, mana ha na-agba mkpụrụ ndụ ụbụrụ gị ume imekwu ihe. Ma enwere ọtụtụ ihe ị nwere ike ime na nnukwu mmụba ahụ na ike ụbụrụ. Karịsịa ma ọ bụrụ na ọ na-eme na lobe frontal.

Dị ka a ga - asị na ịnye mmanụ ụbụrụ ọzọ maka ụbụrụ hypometabolic ezughi oke, ketones na-abawanye metabolism ike site n'ịkwalite neuronal cell mitochondria. Mitochondria bụ batrị nke sel gị. Ka m mee ka o doo anya. Obere mitochondria ndị a dị ka ike reactors. Okwu ahụ bụ́ “batrị” adịghị eme ha ikpe ziri ezi.

Ma chere. Enwere ihe ọzọ.

Ketone na-emepụta ike karịa glucose. N'ezie, ihe dịka 48 ATP vs. ATP 36 ị nwetara site na glucose.

Enwere nnukwu obere blọgụ banyere ketosis, mitochondria, na usoro maka otu ketones si eme ATP. Ebe a ( daalụ, Siimland).

Nnyocha na-agbagwoju anya kpamkpam na enweghị nkwekọrịta gbasara kpọmkwem ego ATP cell chọrọ, ma ya fọdụkwa ụdị ike cell kwesịrị ịdị na-eto eto na-emegide ịrụ ọrụ kacha nta. Nchọpụta ahụ adịchaghịkwa akọwapụta ole ATP neuron nkịtị, astrocyte, ma ọ bụ glial cell nwere ike iji nke ọma. Mara na ụbụrụ gị na-eji 70% nke ATP niile ị mepụtara n'ahụ gị dum. Ị ga-amalite ịghọta mkpa ọ dị ịnweta ketones dị ka isi iyi ike na ụbụrụ ADHD.

"Ma chere otu nkeji!" ị nwere ike ị na-agwa m ka ị na-agụ blọgụ a. Kedu ihe jikọrọ nke a na mgbaàmà m? ADHD/ADD nwere njirisi nyocha. Na akụkụ nke njirisi ahụ dabara n'okpuru ihe a na-akpọ dysfunction Executive.

Nrụ ọrụ nchịkwa, nke a na-akpọkwa ụkọ ọrụ ma ọ bụ nsogbu, bụ mgbe ụbụrụ na-enwe oge siri ike na nkà nke nlebara anya, ebe nchekwa, echiche mgbanwe, na nhazi / njikwa oge.

https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-executive-dysfunction-in-adhd-5213034

Nrụ ọrụ nchịkwa na-abịa site na lobes ihu gbajiri agbaji. Ọkpụkpụ ihu gbajiri agbaji nwere ike ịpụta site na mmerụ ahụ nke isi, ọrịa strok, ma ọ bụ site n'inweghị mmanụ zuru oke iji gbaa ọsọ.

Na nke ahụ, enyi m na-agụ blọgụ, bụ ka nri ketogenic nwere ike isi na-emeso hypometabolism n'okpuru lobe lobe nke bụ akụkụ nke usoro ọrịa na-akpata mgbaàmà ADHD / ADD gị.

ADHD na Neurotransmitter enweghị atụ

Enwere ọtụtụ nhụsianya neurotransmitter na ADHD na ADD. Ndị a gụnyere serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, glutamate, na GABA. Na mgbakwunye, enwere mbelata nke a na-ahụ na ihe dị mkpa akpọrọ ụbụrụ-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị teknụzụ neurotransmitter, ọ na-enwe mmetụta na sistemu glutamate/GABA, yabụ a ga-etinye ya.

Serotonin

Ọdịiche dị n'okwu mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa dị na ndị nwere ADHD na-agbanwe ọrụ nke ndị na-anabata serotonin. Nke a pụtara na a na-agbanwe otú mkpụrụ ndụ akwara na-enweta ma na-eji serotonin neurotransmitter. A na-eche na ọdịiche dị na ndị na-anabata ndị a na otú o si emetụta mmekọrịta dị n'etiti akụkụ ụbụrụ na-emetụta ụfọdụ n'ime nsogbu mmụta na ebe nchekwa anyị na-ahụ na ndị ADHD. A na-eche mbelata ọkwa nke serotonin nwere njikọ na akara ngosi nke enweghị mmasị a na-ahụ na ngosipụta ụfọdụ nke nsogbu ahụ.  

dopamine

Isi ọrụ neurotransmitter ọzọ a na-ahụ na ADHD bụ dopamine. Echiche ndị mbụ tụrụ aro na dopamine dị ala, yana ụfọdụ neurotransmitters ndị ọzọ, bụ isi ihe kpatara ADHD. Ozizi a abanyela n'echiche na nsogbu abụghị n'ihi na ezughị oke dopamine kama n'ihi na enwere ọkwa dị elu nke ndị na-ebugharị dopamine. Ndị na-ebugharị Dopamine na-ekwe ka dopamine banye n'ime cell akwara site na akpụkpọ anụ presynaptic na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma.

Lezienụ anya n'ihe m dere ugbu a. Maka iji dopamine, ị ga-enwe akpụkpọ anụ presynapti na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma. Nke a ga-adị mkpa ma emechaa ka anyị na-atụle ọgwụgwọ.

Inwe ọtụtụ ndị na-ebu dopamine na-arụ ọrụ pụtara na dopamine anaghị ewepụta ogologo oge na mgbawa presynaptic maka oge kwesịrị ekwesị. A na-agbaba ya n'ime ndị nnata niile. Ọ nweghị ike ime ihe ya!

N'ihi na dopamine enweghị ike ịrụ ọrụ ya, onye nwere ADHD na-esiri ya ike ịchọ ihe ụtọ ma nweta ụgwọ ọrụ site na ihe ndị na-atọ ụtọ n'ụbọchị dum. A na-ekekọta ha ka ha nwetakwuo dopamine. Ọ bụ ya mere ndị ADHD nwere ike iji nwee nsogbu na iji ekwentị eme ihe, egwuregwu kọmputa, na ọbụna nri edoziri nke ukwuu. Ejiri nlezianya mee ihe niile iji nye nzaghachi dopamine dị elu na ụbụrụ. Enwere mmetụta dị iche iche nke ahụ erughị ala na-enweghị mmemme na nri ndị a na-akpali akpali. Ihe a niile na-eduga n'inwe ahụ erughị ala, na-eme ihe ike, na inwe nsogbu na nlebara anya.

N'ime ihe ndị na-akpata neuro-chemical, enwere dysregulation a maara nke ọma na mmepụta nke neurotransmitters; N'ụzọ bụ isi, dopamine na adrenaline.

Fayed, NM, Morales, H., Torres, C., Coca, AF, & Ríos, LF Á. (2021). Onyonyo Magnetik Igwe Ọdụdọ na Nlebara anya-Deficit/Ọrịa Hyperactivity (ADHD). https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-61721-9_44

Ọtụtụ ọdịiche dị iche iche nke mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na-enye aka na okwu nke ọrụ dopamine hụrụ na ndị nwere ADHD na ADD. A na-eche na mgbanwe mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na ogo dị iche iche na-enye aka na ngosipụta niile nke nsogbu anyị na-ahụ n'otu n'otu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, COMT polymorphisms na-emetụta usoro dopaminergic na-ejikọta ya na mgbaàmà ADHD na mmebi mmekọrịta ọha na eze.

Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine bụ neuromodulator nwere ọrụ dị mkpa, yana dopamine, n'ikwe ka cortex prefrontal rụọ ọrụ. Cheta, anyị tụlere cortex prefrontal na ihe ọ na-eme na mbụ na blọọgụ a. Cortex prefrontal na-adịghị arụ ọrụ ga-eduga na mperi arụ ọrụ nke na-abụkarị akụkụ nke akara ngosi a na-ahụ na nyocha nke ADHD/ADD.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ n'ime nyocha ahụ na-enwe mmasị ilekwasị anya na dopamine, mmetụta norepinephrine na cortex prefrontal dị nnọọ ike ma dị oke mkpa na nghọta nke mgbaàmà ADHD. Mgbe norepinephrine na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, ọ na-enyere aka na ebe nchekwa ọrụ na nlebara anya. Ndị nwere ADHD/ADD na-akọ akụkọ siri ike na ebe nchekwa na nlebara anya na-arụ ọrụ.

Anyị maara na norepinephrine gụnyere, n'otu akụkụ, n'ihi na ọgwụ noradrenergic nhọrọ (dịka ọmụmaatụ, clonidine, guanfacine) nwere ike inye aka na-agwọ ADHD.

Ma ọzọ, anyị na-ahụ maka okwu nke ndị njem. Ọ bụchaghị na norepinephrine dị ukwuu ma ọ bụ nke pere mpe, kama na anyị na-ahụ mgbanwe mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na-emetụta ka e si emegharị ihe dịbu adị ma jiri ya mee ihe. Ọzọkwa, anyị na-ahụ na ụfọdụ ọdịiche mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa a na-ahụ na ADHD na ADD na-emetụta otú onye na-ebugharị norepinephrine (NET) si arụ ọrụ.

Glutamate na GABA

Anyị na-atụle neurotransmitters abụọ a ọnụ n'ihi na ha bụ akụkụ nke usoro mara mma nke na-arụkọ ọrụ ọnụ. Na ADHD, anyị na-ahụ ahaghị nhata na sistemụ neurotransmitter a. Ọkwa glutamate dị na cortex prefrontal, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ga-emetụta ọkwa nke dopamine na vice-a-versa.

N'ime ụfọdụ ọrịa neurodevelopmental, dị ka ADHD, anyị na-ahụ ahaghị nhata n'etiti excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter na inhibitory GABA. Dopamine receptor (DRD4) arụghị ọrụ nke a na-ahụ na ADHD na-emepụta gburugburu ebe enwere glutamate karịa na ụbụrụ. Ma anyị achọghị ka ton nke glutamate dị na ụbụrụ, ọ bụghị GABA na-edozi ya. N'ihi na ogologo oge, nke a na-ebute mmebi nke mkpụrụ ndụ ụbụrụ na akụkụ ụbụrụ.

Glutamate bụ ihe nrịbama ụbụrụ neurotoxic dị mkpa. Ngabiga nke glutamate nwere ike ibute ọnwụ neuronal site na usoro excitotoxic. A na-echekwa na glutamate na sekit ihu bụ ihe dị mkpa na-achịkwa dopamine, na site na usoro nzaghachi, ntinye nke dopamine nwere ike imetụta ntinye nke glutamate.

Fayed, NM, Morales, H., Torres, C., Coca, AF, & Ríos, LF Á. (2021). Onyonyo Magnetik Igwe Ọdụdọ na Nlebara anya-Deficit/Ọrịa Hyperactivity (ADHD). N'ime Mmelite psychiatry na Neuroscience ( p. 623-633 ). Springer, Cham

Ụmụaka nwere ADHD na-egosi njikwa ihe mgbochi ka njọ ma belata GABA nke ukwuu na striatum, nke bụ ụbụrụ ụbụrụ gụnyere ma n'ịchọpụta ihe omume ị ga-eme na ịmụta banyere nke n'ime omume ndị ahụ kwesịrị imeghachi. A na-eche na ọkwa dara ogbenye ma ọ bụ iji GABA eme ihe na-enye aka na mgbaàmà nke mgbochi omume a na-ahụ na ADHD.

Ntụnye nke ụdị nhụta neurotransmitter a abụghị obere ihe. A na-eche na mmetụta nke neurotransmitters abụọ a enweghị nguzozi na-enye aka ozugbo na etiology nke ADHD na mmetụta neurobiological nke na-adịgide ruo n'oge.

Ihe na-akpata neurotrophic nke ụbụrụ (BDNF)

Achọpụtara BDNF na-agbadata na ADHD. Ụfọdụ n'ime ihe ndị a nwere ike ịbụ n'ihi mgbanwe mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa dị na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị a. Na ndị nwere ADHD / ADD na-eche na nke a ezughị oke. N'ihi na hippocampus gị, usoro ụbụrụ nke na-enyere aka ịhazi ncheta oge dị mkpirikpi, na-arụsi ọrụ ike, yana ọ chọrọ ọtụtụ BDNF iji rụọ ọrụ nke ọma. Na nke a mbelata nke ihe a nwere ike ịbụ ihe mere anyị ji ahụ okwu na ebe nchekwa dị mkpirikpi na ọrụ na ndị nwere ADHD. Ị ga-achọkwa BDNF zuru oke ka ị mụta n'ozuzu ya. Ị chọrọ ya maka akara na glutamatergic na GABAergic (ergic = eme) synapses, ọ na-arụkwa ọrụ na serotonin na dopamine nnyefe n'etiti sel. Isi okwu bụ na ndị nwere ADHD ezughị oke nke ezigbo ihe a. Anyị kwesịkwara ịchọta ụzọ anyị ga-esi mụbaa ya.

Kedu ka nri ketogenic si enyere ahaghị nhata nke neurotransmitter hụrụ na ADHD

Yabụ kedu ka nri ketogenic ga-esi meziwanye mgbaàmà nke ADHD? E kwuwerị, ọ dị ka ADHD bụkarị mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa. Kedu ka nri ketogenic ga-esi gbanwee okwu nke mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na-ekpebi ka neurotransmitters anyị si arụ ọrụ (ma ọ bụ na ha anaghị)? Kedu ka ọgwụgwọ nri nwere ike isi gbanwee nnukwu ihe dị otú ahụ?

Dopamine, Noradrenaline, na Serotonin

Enwere m ike ịkọ nke a na mbụ, mana enwere ụdị ketone atọ. Otu n'ime ụdị ndị ahụ ka a na-akpọ beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB). βHB na-emepụta ọtụtụ enzyme dị n'etiti metabolism (mmepụta ike) nke a na-akpọ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Ọ na-eme nke a site na ụzọ mgbagwoju anya nke ị nwere ike ile anya Ebe a (lee foto 3) ma ọ bụrụ na ị nwere mmasị na ọkwa ahụ.

Maka ebumnuche anyị ebe a, ọ dị mkpa ịmara na nke a na-abawanye njikọ nke neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, na melatonin.

Ma ọ bụrụ n’icheta ọgụgụ gị n’elu, mgbanwe mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na ndị na-anabata neurotransmitter na ngosipụta nke serotonin, dopamine, na norepinephrine bụ okwu a na-ahụ na ụbụrụ ADHD. Ime nke ọ bụla n'ime ha nwere ike ịba ezigbo uru.

  • Serotinin na-abawanye nwere ike imeziwanye agụụ, mmụta na nsogbu ebe nchekwa
  • Mmụba dopamine nwere ike ibelata enweghị ezumike ma melite nlebara anya
  • Mmụba norepinephrine nwere ike imeziwanye ebe nchekwa na nlebara anya ọrụ

A ga-enwekwu ịga neurotransmitter ịdị mma ịgagharị, ọ ga-apụta na ọ ga-abụ na ọ ga-adịkwu ịnọ na synapses ebe ha nwere ike ịrụ anwansi ha. Na nkwalite a nke isi neurotransmitters na-eme n'ụzọ ziri ezi na nri ketogenic.

N'adịghị ka ọgwụ nke ụfọdụ neurotransmitters na-abawanye ma ọ bụ mee ka ọ nọrọ ogologo oge na synapses, a gaghị enwe mmetụta ọgwụ. Anyị niile maara nke ọma, dịka ọmụmaatụ, mmetụta ndị mmadụ na-enwe mgbe ha na-ewere SSRI iji mee ka oge serotonin nọrọ na synapses nke a ga-eji mee ihe. Anyị maara na gabapentin, nke e mere iji mee ka ọkwa GABA dịkwuo elu na ụbụrụ nwere ike ịmepụta mmetụta nke iro ụra, dịka ọmụmaatụ. Ụdị ihe a anaghị eme naanị na nri ketogenic.

Ma gịnị banyere glutamate na GABA?

Dị ka a tụlere n'elu, ụbụrụ ADHD na-alụ ọgụ maka oke glutamate na obere GABA. Nri ketogenic nwere ike ịbawanye glutamic acid decarboxylase activation, nke na-akwado njikọ GABA ma na-agbanwekwa ọrụ enzyme nke na-eme ka GABA ogologo oge na synapses. Yabụ maka ụbụrụ ADHD, nke a pụtara ịnweta neurotransmitter inhibitory chọrọ iji nyere aka dozie ọkwa dị elu nke glutamate.

N'ime ọmụmụ anụmanụ, a chọtara otu n'ime ụdị ketone a maara dị ka acetoacetate iji belata neurotransmission excitatory na synapses hippocampal, nke nwere ike imeziwanye ma ọ bụ ma ọ dịkarịa ala na-echebe ọrụ nchekwa. Ndị ADHD na ADD na-eme mkpesa na-enwekarị nsogbu na ebe nchekwa na mmụta dị mkpirikpi. Ịhazi ọrụ neurotransmitter n'ụdị ebe nchekwa dị mkpa dị ka hippocampus nwere ike inye aka maka mbelata mgbaàmà.

Membrane na-arụ ọrụ na nguzozi nke neurotransmitter

Naanị ị nweghị ike inwe mkparịta ụka gbasara nguzozi neurotransmitter na-ekwurịtaghị ọrụ akpụkpọ ahụ neuronal. βHB na-enyere akpụkpọ anụ neuronal aka repolarize, na ikike imeziwanye ike nwere ọtụtụ uru maka ụbụrụ ADHD/ADD.

Mweghachi nke membranes neuronal, nke βHB kwalitere na-enye ohere ka mkpụrụ ndụ na-achịkọta nri (na-enwekarị ụkọ na ụbụrụ ADHD / ADD) iji mee ka ndị na-ahụ maka ụbụrụ na mbụ. Cheta mgbe anyị na ndị na-anabata neurotransmitter na ndị na-ebugharị na ụbụrụ ADHD/ADD kwurịtara okwu?

Ọfọn, owuwu nke enzymes na-ekpebi ole neurotransmitter ga-adaba na mgbawa synapti, na ogologo oge ka ihe na-ekpebi site na nkwụghachi akpụkpọ ahụ. Ikike nke mgbawa nke synapti nwere ịdị na-enwe mmetụta nke ndị neurotransmitters na-apụta (dị ka dopamine, serotonin, na norepinephrine) na-adaberekwa na nrụgharị arụ ọrụ ahụike.

Ihe na-akpata neurotrophic nke ụbụrụ (BDNF)

A maara nri Ketogenic iji kwalite mmepụta BDNF. A na-eche na nke a nwere ike ịbụ usoro dị mkpa nke na-enye ha ohere imeziwanye nsogbu akwara ozi dị iche iche, dị ka mmerụ ahụ ụbụrụ (TBIs) na dementias. Ketones na-emezi BDNF n'ọrụ ha dị ka ihe na-egosi akara, na-atụgharị mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ma gbanyụọ n'ụzọ na-eme ka e nwee ọtụtụ ihe a. Ya mere imepụta ketones, na nri ketogenic, ga-emepụtakwu BDNF na ụbụrụ ADHD/ADD.

Genes abụghị akara aka

A na-ewere ADHD dị ka mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na-emetụta ya nke ukwuu. Na oge ọ bụla a na-atụle ọrịa n'ụzọ dị otú ahụ, ndị mmadụ nwere ike nweta echiche na-ezighị ezi banyere ma ha ga-enwe ike "imezi" ma ọ bụ gbanwee ọrịa ndị na-akpata ọrịa na-ejikọta ya na ọnọdụ.

Anyị amaghị ole n'ime nsogbu ndị dị na ihe ndị a dị na ADHD sitere na akpụkpọ anụ ahụ na-adịghị mma na-arụ ọrụ n'ihi epigenetic (dịka ọmụmaatụ, hypometabolism n'ihi nri, ụkọ micronutrient, neuroinflammation na-adịghị ala ala, nrụgide oxidative).

Ọ bụ ezie na a na-ekwu na nsogbu ndị na-anabata ndị na-anabata ya na ndị na-ebugharị na-eme n'ọkwa mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na ndị nwere ụbụrụ ADHD, achọrọ m ịga n'ihu na ndekọ dị ka nkwurịta okwu na echere m na ọ ga-ekwe omume na ịgbanwe gburugburu ebe a na-egosipụta mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ndị ahụ nwere ike ịpụta ọganihu mgbaàmà. . Kedu ka okwu mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa si agbasa maka ndị na-ebuga serotonin, dopamine, na norepinephrine na ndị na-anabata ya nwere ike ịdị na-enweta mmetụta epigenetic.

Na ntinye aka epigenetic, dị ka nri ketogenic, dị nnọọ ike na-emetụta mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa. Ketones na-egosi ụmụ irighiri ihe, nke pụtara na ha nwere ikike ịgbanwuo ma gbanyụọ mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa. Naanị n'ihi na a gwara gị ihe bụ ihe nketa apụtaghị na ị nweghị ike ime mgbanwe iji gbanwee otú okwu ahụ si eme.

ADHD na Neuroinflammation

Ndị nwere ADHD nwere ọkwa dị ịrịba ama nke neuroinflammation na-abịakwute ha site n'ọtụtụ ụzọ dị iche iche. Enwere ike ibute mbufụt n'ihi ihe dị iche iche. Nri dị elu na fructose (ihe ọṅụṅụ na-atọ ụtọ na ụlọ ahịa dị mma) nwere ike ịbawanye mbufụt. Mmetọ nwere ike ịbawanye mbufụt. Ihe mgbochi ụbụrụ na-agbapụta ọbara nke na-eme ka nsị banye n'ụbụrụ nwere ike ibute mbufụt. Ihe mgbakasị ahụ siri ike, dị ka ịnwale ule ma ọ bụ ịfụ taya n'okporo ụzọ awara awara, nwere ike ịbawanye mbufụt. Na usoro ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ nwere ike ịbawanye mbufụt. Lezienụ anya na nke ikpeazụ ahụ n'ihi na mbufụt nke arụrụ ọrụ sistemu ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ kpatara na-egosi na ọ bara ezigbo uru na ADHD.

Ya mere gịnị ka nke ahụ pụtara? Mgbe usoro ahụ anyị ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ na-arụ ọrụ, a na-emepụta ihe a na-akpọ cytokines. Ndị a bụ obere ihe mgbaàmà na-agwa usoro ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ ihe ọ ga-eme iji mee ka “onye ọjọọ” ahụ a gwara ha nọ n'ahịrị. Ma cytokines anaghị adị aghụghọ mgbe ha na-alụso ndị omempụ dị iche iche ọgụ. Ha na-emebi ọtụtụ ihe. Kere a nnọọ ogbaaghara uwe ojii chụrụ idaha na niile mmebi na-eme ka ha na-achụso ajọ mmadụ na oké ike na elu na-agba.

Nke ahụ bụ otú cytokines na-agbagharị. Ha nwere ike ma ọ bụ ghara ijide onye ọjọọ ahụ, ma enwere nnukwu ọgbaghara na-akpasu iwe iji kpochaa. Ọ na-ewekwa nnukwu ọrụ, akụrụngwa na akụrụngwa iji mee nhicha ahụ. Maka ụbụrụ, nke ahụ pụtara tọn nke ejiri ike rụọ ọrụ (ọrụ), sel ndị ọzọ dị mma ma nwee ike iburu slack (ngwaọrụ), na ọtụtụ micronutrients (akụrụngwa) karịa ka ị na-enweta na nri gị.

Ugbu a, were ya na ọtụtụ ụgbọ ala na-achụ mgbe niile dị ka ndị na-adịghị akwụsị akwụsị (na-adịghị ala ala). N'ikpeazụ, nhicha na nrụzi ga-ada n'azụ. Obodo na okporo ụzọ ga-amalite ịdị ka ọgbaghara na-ekpo ọkụ. Nke ahụ bụ ụbụrụ gị na-emeso neuroinflammation na-adịghị ala ala.

Ụzọ kachasị mma m nwere ike isi kọwaa otú mbufụt dị na ADHD bụ iji nye nkọwa sitere na isiokwu nyocha m dọtara iji dee post a.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọ ka nwere oke, ihe akaebe a gụnyere 1) ohere dị n'elu nke ADHD nwere ọrịa mkpali na ọrịa autoimmune, 2) nchọpụta mbụ na-egosi njikọ na ADHD na ụba cytokines serum, 3) ihe àmà mbụ sitere na ọmụmụ mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nke na-egosi mkpakọrịta dị n'etiti polymorphisms na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa metụtara. na ụzọ mkpali na ADHD, 4) na-egosi na mmalite ndụ ikpughe n'ọtụtụ ihe ize ndụ gburugburu ebe obibi nwere ike ịbawanye ihe ize ndụ maka ADHD site na usoro mkpali, na 5) ihe akaebe nke usoro sitere na ụdị anụmanụ nke ịmalite ime ihe mgbochi nke nne na-edepụta àgwà na nsonaazụ akwara kwekọrọ na ya. ADHD.

Dunn, GA, Nigg, JT, & Sullivan, EL (2019). Neuroinflammation dị ka ihe dị ize ndụ maka nsogbu hyperactivity nlebara anya. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.05.005

N’ihi ya, ka anyị leba anya n’ihe ihe anyị ka gụrụ pụtara. Ndị nwere ADHD na-enwekarị nsogbu mkpali na autoimmune comorbidities. N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, ọ dị ihe na-adịghị mma na usoro ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ, ọ na-ebutekwa mbufụt n'ihi ya. Ya mere, ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya, mgbe ha nwalere ndị nwere ADHD maka ihe nrịbama ọbara nke mbufụt, ha na-achọpụta na ha nwere ọtụtụ cytokines na-egbuke egbuke karịa njikwa.

Mgbe anyị lere anya n'ihe mmepe maka ADHD, anyị na-ahụ n'oge ndụ ikpughe na ihe ize ndụ gburugburu ebe obibi nke na-akpata mbufụt. N'ụdị anụmanụ, ha achọpụtala usoro dị n'etiti ịgbalite usoro ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ n'oge ime ime na ụbụrụ na-esote na mgbanwe omume n'ime ụmụ yiri nke a na-ahụ na ndị nwere ADHD.

Ọ bụrụ na ihe niile ezughị iji mee ka ị kwenye na neuroinflammation dị oke mkpa na ADHD, hapụ m ka m gwa gị gbasara mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa polymorphisms ha chọtara jikọtara ya na ụzọ ndị na-emepụta mbufụt ahụ.

Ma achọpụtara na mkpakọrịta ndị a niile bụ ihe kpatara ya ma ọ bụ na ọ bụghị, m ga-arụ ụka, ọ dịghị mkpa. Anyị anaghị adabere na usoro ihe kpatara ọtụtụ ihe, anyị na-amakwa ọgwụ n'elu iji gbanwee ihe anyị chere na ọ na-eme, anyị na-eme ya mgbe niile. Yabụ kedu ihe kpatara na anyị agaghị ewere mbufụt dị ka ebumnuche nwere ike inye aka belata mgbaàmà nke ADHD?

Luckily, a otutu n'ezie smart-eme nnyocha ekwenyela na m. Achọghị m ka ị chee na nke a bụ naanị ihe m chepụtara n'onwe m.

Dabere na echiche anyị, ikwado neuroinflammation nwere ike ịbụ ihe enyemaka ọgwụgwọ ọhụrụ nwere ike ịgwọ ADHD.

Kerekes, N., Sanchéz-Pérez, AM, & Landry, M. (2021). Neuroinflammation dị ka njikọ dị n'etiti nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity (ADHD) na mgbu. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110717

Neuroinflammation a dịkwa mkpa n'ihe anyị na-agụ na ngalaba ikpeazụ gbasara ahaghị nhata nke neurotransmitter. Mbufụt na-emepụta neurotransmitters ndị ọzọ na-akpali akpali ma na-akwalite iwe anyị na-ahụ n'etiti glutamate na GABA. Mbufụt na-emepụta gburugburu ebe obibi na ụbụrụ ebe ọ na-apụghị ime oke kwesịrị ekwesị nke GABA na glutamate. O nwere ike ịbụ n'ihi na a na-amanye ya (site na ụgbọ ala ndị ahụ niile na-agba ọsọ).

Ọ bụ ihe ezi uche na-adịghị na ya iche na ị ga-eme ka ndị na-ahụ maka ụbụrụ na-agwa gị ka ị dị jụụ nakwa na ihe niile dị mma mgbe ị nwere ọrịa na-adịghị ala ala. Nke a bụ ya mere ọ dị mkpa ịṅa ntị na mgbaàmà gị. Ọ bụ ụzọ ụbụrụ gị si agwa gị ihe dị njọ nke ukwuu. Ọ kwesịrị ka ị ghara ileghara anya ụgbọ ala anaghị akwụsị akwụsị na-eme ma na-emebi. Ọ na-achọ ka ị ṅaa ntị. O nwere ike ọ bụghị onye na-akwado gị na-agbalị ịchọta ndenye ọgwụ ga-enyere gị aka ime ka à ga-asị na mmebi ahụ adịghị eme.

Ka anyị mee mbufụt ka otu n'ime ebumnuche ntinye aka nke anyị na-ahụ na-enye aka na mgbaàmà na ụbụrụ ADHD/ADD.

Kedu ka nri ketogenic si bụrụ ọgwụgwọ maka neuroinflammation hụrụ na ADHD

Dị ka anyị tụlere n'elu, neuroinflammation a na-ahụ na ADHD na-abịa n'otu akụkụ site na nzaghachi mgbochi na-adịghị arụ ọrụ. Anaghị m ekwukarị mmetụta nke nri ketogenic na sistemu ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ, mana ọ dị ka ọ dị oke mkpa maka etiology na ngosipụta akara na ọnụ ọgụgụ a.

Agbanyeghị, agụbeghị m nke ọma na sistemu ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ, yabụ m ga-abụ izugbe ebe a wee mee nyocha ọzọ ma ọ bụrụ na ọ dị gị mkpa.

Nri ketogenic na-edozi ma na-edozi ọrụ mgbochi. Anyị na-eji ha enyere aka na-agwọ ụdị ọrịa kansa ụfọdụ, n'otu akụkụ, n'ihi nzaghachi mgbochi dị mma na ntinye T-cell. Ndị ọrụ nyocha chọtara nsonaazụ dị mma zuru oke nke nri ketogenic na sistemu sistemu ahụ nke ewepụtara RCT iji hụ ma enwere ike iji ya weta ihe nchebe megide COVID.

Ụfọdụ ndị mmadụ na-eche na ngbanwe a nke usoro ahụ ji alụso ọrịa ọgụ na-eme n'ihi mgbanwe nri ketogenic na eriri afọ microbiome. Otu n'ime mmanụ ọkụ na-amasịkarị guts bụ butyrate, akụkụ nke ụfọdụ ozu ketone na enwere ike ịhụ ya n'ọkwa kachasị na bọta. M na-ahụ mgbe niile na nke a dị oke egwu, ebe elekwasị anya ugbu a yiri ka ọ bụ ihe niile gbasara fiber prebiotic dị ka dike nke ahụike na ịdị mma. Ekwesịrị m ịkọwapụta na ọgwụgwọ ụfọdụ na-eme na mgbochi ụbụrụ ọbara mgbe ị na-aga nri ketogenic.

Ya mere, mmetụta bara uru nke nri ketogenic nwere ike ịdabere na ụbara ụbụrụ nke KB iji kwekọọ n'ọchịchọ metabolic na nrụzi nke BBB mebiri emebi. Dị ka a na-aghọta nke ọma mmetụta KB na BBB na usoro njem ha n'ofe BBB, ọ ga-ekwe omume ịmepụta usoro ọzọ iji kwalite uru ọgwụgwọ nke KB maka nsogbu ụbụrụ ebe BBB na-emebi.

(KBs = ahụ ketone; BBB = mgbochi ụbụrụ ọbara)
Banjara, M., & Janigro, D. (2016). Mmetụta nke nri ketogenic na mgbochi ụbụrụ ọbara. 
DOI: 10.1093/med/9780190497996.001.0001

Ihe mgbochi ụbụrụ ụbụrụ dị mma pụtara ntakịrị ihe na-ese n'elu ụbụrụ gị nke na-abụghị nke ya n'ezie. Na mgbe ị nwere nsị ma ọ bụ ihe ndị na-esi na mgbochi ụbụrụ ọbara nke na-abụghị nke, ọ na-eduga na ịkpalite cytokines ma na-enye aka na neuroinflammation.

Ya mere, tụlee mmetụta nri ketogeniki nwere na ọrụ mgbochi ọrịa dị ka ego na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa n'inyere gị aka ibelata mgbaàmà ADHD / ADD gị na-enyere aka ibelata mgbaàmà gị.

Usoro ọzọ nke nri ketogenic na-ebelata mbufụt bụ site na igbochi ụzọ mkpali. Ketones, nke a na-eme n'ụba na nri ketogenic, na-egosi ụmụ irighiri ihe, na ịbụ ihe na-egosi akara pụtara na ha na-eje ozi dị ka onye ozi, na-agwa ụfọdụ mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ka ha gbanyụọ na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa ndị ọzọ ka ha gbanye. Na nri ketogenic na-ebelata mbufụt n'ụzọ dị oke mma. Dị ka, ozugbo.

Na ngalaba na-esote, anyị ga-amụta banyere ka mbufụt na-ekere òkè na nrụgide oxidative na otú ibelata usoro ọrịa a nwere ike isi metụta mgbaàmà anyị na-ahụ na ADHD.

ADHD na nrụgide Oxidative

Nchegbu oxidative na-eme mgbe enweghị ahaghị nhata nke ike anụ ahụ iji mesoo ngwaahịa ndị na-eme naanị site na ịdị ndụ. Ọtụtụ ihe nwere ike ịkpata nrụgide oxidative. Naanị iku ume na-emepụta ihe a na-akpọ ụdị oxygen reactive (ROS). Ya mere ahụ gị na-atụ anya ụfọdụ ROS, naanị site na ịdị ndụ. Ọ bụghịkwa nsogbu mgbe sistemu mmebi gị/antioxidant na-adabara. Dị ka anyị ga-ekwu maka mgbe e mesịrị na blọọgụ a, e mere anyị ka anyị na-emeso ROS, ọ dịkarịa ala ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ. Mana ọkwa nke ekpughere anyị taa bụ nke a na-ahụtụbeghị mbụ na akụkọ ntolite gị.

Anyị kwurịtara naanị mbufụt. Ọfụfụ ọ na-eme ka nrụgide oxidative karịa? Ee. Ee, ọ na-eme nke ọma.

Usoro mbufụt na-ebute nrụgide oxidative ma na-ebelata ikike antioxidant cell.

Khansari, N., Shakiba, Y., & Mahmoudi, M. (2009). Mbufụt na-adịghị ala ala na nrụgide oxidative dị ka isi ihe na-ebute ọrịa afọ na ọrịa kansa. https://doi.org/10.2174/187221309787158371

A ga-ehichapụrịrị ROS ndị a ma ọ bụ kpochapu ya. Na maka ahụ gị ime nke ahụ, ịchọrọ ọtụtụ micronutrients (cofactors) na ọkwa dị mma nke ma endogenous (mere n'ime ahụ gị) antioxidants. Ndị mmadụ na-erikwa antioxidants (dịka, turmeric, quercetin, vitamin C na E), na-anwa ibelata nrụgide oxidative.

Nchegbu oxidative abụghị egwuregwu. Ekwe ka ọ na-agba ọsọ na-achịkwaghị oge, ị ga-emebi DNA gị. Ka anyị laghachi azụ n'ihe atụ nke ịchụ ụgbọ ala anyị. Ọ dị ka a ga-asị na ịchụ ụgbọ ala apụọla nke ukwuu nke na ụlọ na-ada, okporo ụzọ na-akụkwasị. Ma ugbu a, ihe ọmụma maka idozi ihe ndị a niile efuola na ọgba aghara niile. Ma ugbu a ndị mmadụ na-agbalị iwughachi obodo ahụ, mgbe ụgbọ ala ahụ niile chụsịrị, enweghị ike ime ya nke ọma ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ kwụsiri ike. Nke a bụ ntụnyere maka mmebi DNA nke na-eme na nrụgide oxidative na-achịkwaghị achịkwa. Dị ka ị nwere ike iche n'echiche, ọrịa ndị na-adịghị ala ala ga-etolite n'ihi nke a.

E nwere ọtụtụ ụzọ dị iche iche e si emepụta ROS karịa ihe ahụ anyị nwere ike ijikwa. E wezụga naanị iku ume na ike metabolize, ụfọdụ ihe nwere ike ịbawanye ibu nke nrụgide oxidative bụ gburugburu ebe obibi gụnyere:

  • UV na ionizing radieshon
  • mmetọ
  • ọla dị arọ
  • ihe ọkụkụ
  • ọgwụ ọjọọ eme ihe
  • pesticides
  • ntecha
  • flavorings
  • na-esi isi
  • ihe oriri
  • Chemical ụlọ ọrụ
  • mmetọ gburugburu ebe obibi

Ihe ndị a niile na-abawanye ROS ma na-akpata enweghị ahaghị nhata nke anyị na-ezo aka dị ka nrụgide oxidative. Nchegbu oxidative na-eduga ná mmebi cell na anụ ahụ, na ụbụrụ, n'ozuzu, na-enwe mmetụta karịsịa na ya.

Mana ụbụrụ ADHD/ADD dị ọbụna karịa. Mba, n'ezie, ma ọ dị na akwụkwọ nyocha. Ma tupu anyị atụle ya, ka anyị kwuo banyere ọgwụ ndị a na-eji agwọ ADHD.

N'elu ebe nchekwa gburugburu ebe obibi nke nrụgide oxidative nke akọwapụtara n'elu, ọgwụ ndị mmadụ na-eji agwọ mgbaàmà ADHD nwere ike ime ka nsogbu ahụ ka njọ. Iji ọgwụ ADHD dị ka Methylphenidate (MPH), rere dị ka Ritalin na aha ndị ọzọ, na-abawanye ọkwa nke nrụgide oxidative.

Na MPH enwere ihe akaebe maka mmụba OS, nchekwa AO gbanwere na ọnya neuro na ụmụaka ADHD

Kovacic, P., & Weston, W. Nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity - usoro na-ejikọta usoro ọgwụgwọ antioxidant: Phenolics, ụdị oxygen na-emeghachi omume, na nrụgide oxidative. https://www.biochemjournal.com/articles/23/1-2-10-853.pdf

N'ime akwụkwọ nyocha, anyị na-ahụ ọkwa dị elu nke nrụgide oxidative na ụbụrụ ADHD, nke a nwere ike ịbịa site n'ụdị mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa na ROS.

Otu ihe atụ nke a bụ Organophosphates, dị ka dimethyl phosphate (DMP; pesticide). Ọmụmụ ihe gbasara mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa egosila na ikpughe n'ọkwa dị elu nke ihe a na gburugburu ebe obibi kere nnukwu ihe ize ndụ maka ịmepụta ụfọdụ ngbanwe kpọmkwem anyị na-ahụ na ADHD na ndị na-anabata dopamine.

59% nke ikpe ADHD na ụmụaka ekpughere DMP nwere DRD4 GG genotype bụ n'ihi mmekọrịta nke mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa-gburugburu. Mgbe mgbanwe maka ndị ọzọ covariates, ụmụaka ndị bu DRD4 GG genotype, ekpughere ya na ọkwa DMP dị elu (karịa etiti etiti), yana… nwere nnukwu ihe egwu dị ukwuu maka ịmalite ADHD.

Chang, CH, et al., (2018). Mmekọrịta dị n'etiti mkpughe pesticide organophosphate, nrụgide oxidative, na polymorphisms mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nke dopamine receptor D4 na-abawanye ohere nke nlebara anya deficit / nsogbu hyperactivity na ụmụaka. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.011

Ya mere nrụgide oxidative nwere ike ịbụ akụkụ nke etiology (otú o si malite) nke ADHD. Ma ọ na-ekere òkè na nhazi ya? M ga-asị ee. Enwere polymorphisms na mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa metụtara mkpali hụrụ na ndị nwere ADHD. A na-ahụ ọkwa antioxidant belatara n'ime ụmụaka, ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma na ndị okenye ma e jiri ya tụnyere otu njikwa.

Nchegbu Oxidative bụ okwu dị na ụbụrụ ADHD/ADD nke na otu ọgwụgwọ a ma ama na nke a na-akọ bụ iji OPCs. OPC bụ antioxidant dị ike karịsịa. M buru ụzọ mụọ banyere ha na webinar efu na Psychiatry Redefined, nke ị nwere ike ilele Ebe a. Achọghị m ịpụ na isiokwu, yabụ agaghị m abanye na OPC na blọọgụ a. Mana achọrọ m ịkọwapụta na nrụgide oxidative bụ ebumnuche ọgwụgwọ na isi mgbaka na-arụ ọrụ. Ị nwere ike ị gaghị enweta uru nke onye na-ede ọgwụ zụrụ azụ na ọgwụ na-arụ ọrụ. Ya mere, ahapụrụ m ozi a ebe a ma ọ bụrụ na ịchọrọ inyochakwu maka njem ahụike gị.

Ma dị ka anyị ga-amụta, e nwere ọtụtụ ụzọ nri ketogenic na-enyere aka ịgwọ nrụgide oxidative, si otú ahụ nwee ike (ma eleghị anya) meziwanye mgbaàmà gị. Otu ụzọ ọzọ keto nwere ike isi nyere ADHD aka.

Kedu ka nri ketogenic si ebelata ọkwa nrụgide oxidative na ndị nwere ADHD

Enwere ọtụtụ ụzọ nke nri ketogenic na-emetụta ya. Otu ihe atụ bụ na a na-abawanye agmatine, neurotransmitter nke na-ewu ewu na-ewu ewu nke sitere na amino acid L-arginine. Mmụba nke agmatine a na ụbụrụ nke na-eme na nri ketogenic nwere ihe ndekọ neuroprotective nke ọma na-enyere aka chebe ụbụrụ ADHD site na ụbara nrụgide oxidative.

Ihe ọzọ ịmara gbasara nri ketogenic, gbasara mmetụta ha na nrụgide oxidative, bụ na ketones bụ isi iyi ike na-ere ọkụ. Obere ROS emepụtala ketones na-ere ọkụ maka mmanụ ọkụ karịa isi mmalite mmanụ ndị ọzọ. N'ihi nke a, βHB (ụdị ahụ ketone) na-ebelata mmepụta ROS ma na-abawanye nchebe antioxidant.

Ụzọ ọzọ nri ketogenic si enyere aka na-emeso nrụgide oxidative ozugbo bụ na βHB na-ebelata mmebi oxidative n'ihi mkparị excitotoxic (dịka, cheta glutamate?) Na saịtị ebe mmebi na-eme. N'ụzọ ụfọdụ, βHB na-enyere aka ịkwụsị ma ọ bụ mezie mmebi nke nrụgide oxidative mere. Ndị nchọpụta na-eche na nke a nwere ike ịbụ n'ihi ọrụ mitochondrial ka mma ma ọ bụ na-emetụta mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa.

Mana chere, enwere ọbụna ihe nri ketogenic na-eme iji nyere aka belata nrụgide oxidative.

Nri ketogenic na-enyere anyị aka ịmekwu nke antioxidant dị mkpa anyị na-eme n'ime ahụ anyị. Cheta, anyị kwuru banyere otu ahụ gị si mara na ROS ga-abụ ihe. N'ihi na ị na-eku ume na-eri nri na-akpali na stof. Ya mere, o doro anya na ọ nwere ụzọ isi mee nke ahụ. Ọ na-emetụta ọkwa ROS nkịtị na ihe akpọrọ Glutathione. Mana dịka anyị mụtara, enwere ọtụtụ ihe na gburugburu ebe obibi anyị na-eme ka ROS anyị gafere ọkwa ndị a tụrụ anya ya.

Glutathione bụ antioxidant dị mkpa nke nwere ike ichebe cell site na mmebi DNA. Nri ketogenic na-enyere gị aka imekwu glutathione site n'ịba ụba GCL, enzyme dị mkpa iji mepụta Glutathione. A na-ewere GCL dị ka “enzyme na-egbochi ọnụego,” nke pụtara na ị na-enweta naanị glutathione ka ị nwere enzyme ahụ. Ya mere, nri ketogenic na-eme ka GCL dịkwuo elu bụ ihe na-enye gị glutathione ọzọ ma bụrụ ihe na-emekọ ihe ọnụ na-ebelata nrụgide oxidative na ụbụrụ ADHD.

mmechi

Ya mere, ị nwere ya. Ndị ahụ bụ ụfọdụ n'ime ọtụtụ ụzọ nri ketogenic nwere ike isi nyere aka belata mgbaàmà nke ADHD na ADD. Dị ka ị pụrụ ịhụ, nri ketogenic bụ ntinye aka ọtụtụ.

Ọ na-eme ka ahụ ike nke neuronal cell dịkwuo mma, na-eme ka nkwurịta okwu dị n'etiti sel. Nri Ketogenic na-emezi GABA, na-enyere aka melite ahaghị nhata glutamate/GABA a na-ahụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ a.

Ketones na-emeziwanye (na-eme ka ọ dịkwuo) ụbụrụ na-enweta neurotrophic factor (BDNF) iji mee ka ọkpụkpụ neuronal rụkwaa. Cheta, ndị na-anabata dopamine anaghị edozi onwe ha. Mana ma eleghị anya karịa ka ọ dị mkpa bụ ka nkwalite na BDNF nwere ike isi mee ka ebe nchekwa ọrụ dịkwuo mma na mmụta na ndị nwere ADHD.

Nri ketogenic akwụsịghị ebe ahụ.

Ha na-ebelata neuroinflammation ma bụrụ neuroprotective, nke ga-ebelata nrụgide oxidative na ụbụrụ ADHD.

Nri ketogenic na-eme ka ọrụ mitochondrial dịkwuo mma ma mepụta ike dị mma maka akụkụ nke ụbụrụ bụ hypometabolic. Mmepụta ume a ka mma na-eme ka akpụkpọ anụ neuronal kwụsie ike (cheta hyperpolarization?) ma na-enye ohere ka mkpụrụ ndụ rụọ ọrụ nke ọma. Ikekwe ọ bara ezigbo uru maka mgbanwe nke okwu na serotonin na dopamine receptors na transporters hụrụ na ndị nwere ADHD na ADD.

Ndị a bụ akụkụ niile nke ọgwụgwọ nwere ike itinye aka na mgbaàmà ADHD.

Mana chere, ị nwere ike ịsị. Ọ bụghị naanị m nwere ADHD ma ọ bụ ADD. Enwere m nsogbu comorbid, dị ka nsogbu ọnọdụ uche na nsogbu iji ọgwụ eme ihe. Nke a agaghị eju m anya. Mgbe arụ ọrụ onye isi na-adịghị mma, n'ihi ihe ọ bụla, ndị mmadụ na-enwe nsogbu ịchịkwa ọnọdụ. Ị chọrọ lobe ihu ihu na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma na nguzozi neurotransmitter iji chịkwaa mmetụta uche gị. Ma n'ihi na nri ketogenic na-enyere aka na ụdị ihe ahụ, o kwesịghị iju gị anya na m nwere ọtụtụ posts na-atụle otú nri ketogenic si enyere aka ịgwọ nchekasị, ịda mbà n'obi, na ịda mbà n'obi. iji ihe na-eme ihe.

Ọ bụ ezie na ekwesịrị ịnye gị ụkpụrụ nlekọta mgbe niile, ọ dịkwa mkpa ka ị mara nhọrọ ndị ọzọ nwekwara ihe akaebe. Ya mere, ị nwere ike ime mkpebi ziri ezi gbasara nlekọta ha.

N'ihi na ị nwere ikike ịmara ụzọ niile ị ga-esi nweta mma.

Nri ketogenic bụ otu n'ime ha. Ọ dịkwa m mkpa ka mmadụ gwa gị nke ahụ ka i wee nwee ike ime mkpebi ziri ezi gbasara ọgwụgwọ gị.

Achọrọ m ịgba gị ume ka ị mụtakwuo gbasara nhọrọ ọgwụgwọ gị site na nke m ọ bụla blog posts. Ana m ede maka usoro dị iche iche n'ọkwa dị iche iche nke nkọwa nke ị nwere ike ịhụ na ọ na-enyere gị aka ịmụta na njem ahụike gị. Ma ị nwere ike irite uru site na ịghọta otú iso onye ndụmọdụ ahụike uche na-arụ ọrụ mgbe ị na-atụgharị gaa na nri ketogenic nwere ike inye aka Ebe a.

Kekọrịta ozi blọgụ a ma ọ bụ ndị ọzọ na ndị enyi na ezinụlọ na-enwe mgbaàmà. Mee ka ndị mmadụ mara na olileanya dị.

Ị nwere ike ịmụtakwu gbasara m Ebe a. Ọ bụrụ na ịchọrọ ka gị na m rụọ ọrụ iji nyere aka na mgbanwe gị na nri ketogenic, ị nwere ike ịkpọtụrụ m Ebe a. Enwere m obi ụtọ dị ka oge niile, na atụmanya na ị ga-enwe mmetụta nke ọma.

Dị ka ihe ị na-agụ na blọgụ? Chọrọ ịmụta maka webinars na-abịa, nkuzi na ọbụna na-enye nkwado na iso m na-arụkọ ọrụ maka ebumnuche ọdịmma gị? debanye aha!

References

Ụzọ bara uru iji zere mwepu ọgwụ-ihe na-edozi ahụ. (2020, Julaị 13). NBI. https://www.nbihealth.com/a-practical-approach-to-avoiding-drug-nutrient-depletions/

Achanta, LB, & Rae, CD (2017). β-Hydroxybutyrate n'ime ụbụrụ: Otu Molecule, ọtụtụ usoro. Nnyocha Neurochemical, 42(1), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-2099-2

Adrenaline na Noradrenaline—Gịnị Bụ Ọdịiche na Myirịta? (nd). Andréas Astier. Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 8, 2022, site na https://www.andreasastier.com/blog/adrenaline-and-noradrenaline-what-are-the-differences-and-similarities

Anand, D., Colpo, GD, Zeni, G., Zeni, CP, & Teixeira, AL (2017). Nlebara anya-Enweghị/Nhụsianya Ọgba aghara na Ọzịza: Gịnị Ka Ọmụma Dị Ugbu A Na-agwa Anyị? Nleba anya n'usoro. Frontiers na Psychiatry, 8, 228. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00228

Arnsten, AFT (2000). Mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nke nsogbu nwata: XVIII. ADHD, Nkebi 2: Norepinephrine nwere Mmetụta Modulatory Dị Mkpa na Ọrụ Prefrontal Cortical. Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(9), 1201-1203. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200009000-00022

Badgaiyan, RD, Sinha, S., Sajjad, M., & Wack, DS (2015). Attenuated Tonic na nkwalite Phasic Mwepụta nke Dopamine na Nlebara anya Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. BỤ ONYE, 10(9), e0137326. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137326

Banerjee, S. (2013). Nlebara anya mpe mpe mpe akwa na ụmụaka na ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma. BoD - Akwụkwọ ndị achọrọ.

Bedford, A., & Gong, J. (2018). Mmetụta butyrate na ihe ndị sitere na ya maka ahụike eriri afọ na mmepụta anụmanụ. Nri anụmanụ (Zhongguo Xu Mu Shou Yi Xue Hui), 4(2), 151-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2017.08.010

Biederman, J., & Spencer, T. (1999). Nlebara anya-deficit/hyperactivity (adhd) dị ka nsogbu noradrenergic. Nyocha Ọrịa, 46(9), 1234-1242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00192-4

Boison, D. (2017). Nghọta ọhụrụ n'ime usoro nke nri ketogenic. Echiche dị ugbu a na Neurology, 30(2), 187. https://doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000432

Metabolism nke ụbụrụ na ahụike, ịka nká, na neurodegeneration. (2017). Akwụkwọ akụkọ EMBO, 36(11), 1474-1492. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.201695810

Bush, G. (2011). Cingulate, Frontal, na Parietal Cortical Dysfunction na Nlebara anya-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Nyocha Ọrịa, 69(12), 1160-1167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.01.022

Bush, G. (2011b). Cingulate, Frontal, na Parietal Cortical Dysfunction na Nlebara anya-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Nyocha Ọrịa, 69(12), 1160-1167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.01.022

Carolina, CMM, PharmD, BCACP, BCGP Assistant Prọfesọ nke Ụlọ Akwụkwọ Mahadum Wingate nke Pharmacy Wingate, North. (nd). Mmebi ihe oriri na-edozi ahụ sitere na ọgwụ: Ihe ndị na-ere ọgwụ kwesịrị ịma. Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 6, 2022, site na https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/druginduced-nutrient-depletions-what-pharmacists-need-to-know

Metabolism nke cerebral glucose na hyperactivity. (1991). The New England Journal of Medicine, 324(17), 1216-1217. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199104253241713

Chang, C.-H., Yu, C.-J., Du, J.-C., Chiou, H.-C., Chen, H.-C., Yang, W., Chung, M.- Y., Chen, Y.-S., Hwang, B., Mao, I.-F., & Chen, M.-L. (2018). Mmekọrịta dị n'etiti mkpughe pesticide organophosphate, nrụgide oxidative, na polymorphisms mkpụrụ ndụ ihe nketa nke dopamine receptor D4 na-abawanye ohere nke nlebara anya deficit / nsogbu hyperactivity na ụmụaka. Nnyocha ebe obibi, 160, 339-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.011

Cioffi, F., Adam, RHI, & Broersen, K. (2019). Mechanisms Molecular na Genetics of Oxidative Stress na Ọrịa Alzheimer. Akwụkwọ nke Ọrịa Alzheimer, 72(4), 981. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-190863

Colucci-D'Amato, L., Speranza, L., & Volpicelli, F. (2020). Ihe kpatara Neurotrophic BDNF, Ọrụ anụ ahụ na ọgwụgwọ nwere ike ịda mbà n'obi, Neurodegeneration na Brain Cancer. Akwụkwọ bụ International Journal of Scholarships, 21(20), E7777. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207777

Corona, JC (2020). Ọrụ nke Nchegbu Oxidative na Neuroinflammation na Nlebara anya-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. antioxidants, 9(11). https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111039

Cytokines na Brain: Mmetụta maka ahụike uche | Akwụkwọ akụkọ American Journal of Psychiatry. (nd). Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 8, 2022, site na https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.683?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pubmed

Drake, J., Sultana, R., Aksenova, M., Calabrese, V., & Butterfield, DA (2003). Nbuli nke mitochondrial glutathione site na γ-glutamylcysteine ​​​​ethyl ester na-echebe mitochondria megide nrụgide oxidative na-ebute peroxynitrite. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 74(6), 917-927. https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.10810

Dunn, GA, Nigg, JT, & Sullivan, EL (2019a). Neuroinflammation dị ka ihe dị ize ndụ maka nsogbu hyperactivity nlebara anya. Ọrịa ọgwụ, Mmiri nke Mmiri, na Omume, 182, 22-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.05.005

Dunn, GA, Nigg, JT, & Sullivan, EL (2019b). Neuroinflammation dị ka ihe dị ize ndụ maka nsogbu hyperactivity nlebara anya. Usoro ọgwụ na ọgwụ nje na ọgwụ, 182, 22-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.05.005

Dvořáková, M., Sivoňová, M., Trebatická, J., Škodáček, I., Waczuliková, I., Muchová, J., & Ďuračková, Z. (2006). Mmetụta nke mmịpụta polyphenolic sitere na ogbugbo pine, Pycnogenol® na ọkwa glutathione n'ime ụmụaka na-enwe nsogbu nlebara anya hyperactivity (ADHD). Akụkọ Redox, 11(4), 163-172. https://doi.org/10.1179/135100006X116664

Edden, RA, Crocetti, D., Zhu, H., Gilbert, DL, & Mostofsky, SH (2012). Mbelata mkpokọta GABA na nlebara anya-deficit/hyperactivity. Archives nke izugbe psychiatry69(7), 750-753. doi: 10.1001 / archgenpsychiatry.2011.2280

Essa, MM, Subash, S., Braidy, N., Al-Adawi, S., Lim, CK, Manivasagam, T., & Guillemin, GJ (2013). Ọrụ nke NAD +, Nchegbu Oxidative, na Metabolism Tryptophan na Ọrịa Autism Spectrum. Akwụkwọ akụkọ International nke Tryptophan Research: IJTR, 6(Nkwadebe nke 1), 15. https://doi.org/10.4137/IJTR.S11355

Fayed, NM, Morales, H., Torres, C., Fayed Coca, A., & Ángel Ríos, LF (2021). Onyonyo Magnetik Igwe Ọdụdọ na Nlebara anya-Deficit/Ọrịa Hyperactivity (ADHD). Na P. Á. Gargiulo & HL Mesones Arroyo (Eds.), Mmelite nke isi mmụọ na neuroscience: Site na Epistemology ruo na ahụike uche - Vol. IV: Vol. IV ( p. 623–633 ). Springer International Mbipụta. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-61721-9_44

Galic, MA, Riazi, K., & Pittman, QJ (2012). Cytokines na ụbụrụ excitability. Frontiers na Neuroendocrinology, 33(1), 116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2011.12.002

García-Rodríguez, D., & Giménez-Cassina, A. (2021). Ahụ Ketone dị n'ụbụrụ na-agafe metabolism mmanụ: Site na excitability ruo na nkwupụta mkpụrụ ndụ na akara ekwentị. Frontiers na Molecular Neuroscience, 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2021.732120

Mmekọrịta Gene-Gburugburu Ebe Obibi—Nlebanya | Isiokwu ScienceDirect. (nd). Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 9, 2022, site na https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/gene-environment-interaction

Hess, JL, Akutagava-Martins, GC, Patak, JD, Glatt, SJ, & Faraone, SV (2018a). Kedu ihe kpatara enwere adịghị ike subcortical nhọrọ na ADHD? Ngosipụta sitere na data nkwupụta mkpụrụ ndụ ụbụrụ postmortem. Ọrịa na-enweghị isi, 23(8), 1787-1793. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2017.242

Hess, JL, Akutagava-Martins, GC, Patak, JD, Glatt, SJ, & Faraone, SV (2018b). Kedu ihe kpatara enwere adịghị ike subcortical nhọrọ na ADHD? Ngosipụta sitere na data nkwupụta mkpụrụ ndụ ụbụrụ postmortem. Ọrịa na-enweghị isi, 23(8), 1787-1793. https://doi.org/10.1038/mp.2017.242

Hou, Y., Xiong, P., Gu, X., Huang, X., Wang, M., & Wu, J. (2018). Njikọ nke ndị na-anabata Serotonin nwere nlebara anya na-adịghị mma hyperactivity: Nyocha usoro na meta-analysis. Sayensị ahụike dị ugbu a, 38(3), 538-551. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11596-018-1912-3

Jacintho, JD, & Kovacic, P. (2003). Neurotransmission na Neurotoxicity nke Nitric Oxide, Catecholamines, na Glutamate: Imekọ Okwu nke Ụdị Oxygen Reactive na Nyefe Electron. Chemistry Ọgwụ Na-aganụ, 10(24), 2693-2703. https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867033456404

Jonathan. (nd). Egwu Micronutrient na ADHD: Nkwekọrịta nyocha zuru ụwa ọnụ. ISOM. Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 6, 2022, site na https://isom.ca/article/micronutrient-deficiencies-adhd-global-research-consensus/

Joseph, N., Zhang-James, Y., Perl, A., & Faraone, SV (2015). Nchegbu Oxidative na ADHD: Meta-Analysis. Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke nsogbu nlebara anya, 19(11), 915-924. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054713510354

Kapoor, D., Garg, D., & Sharma, S. (2021). Ọrụ na-apụta nke Ketogenic Dietary Therapies karịrị Akwụkwụ na-adọ na Neurology ụmụaka. Annals nke Indian Academy of Neurology, 24(4), 470. https://doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_20_21

Kautzky, A., Vanicek, T., Philippe, C., Kranz, GS, Wadsak, W., Mitterhauser, M., Hartmann, A., Hahn, A., Hacker, M., Rujescu, D., Kasper , S., & Lanzenberger, R. (2020). Nhazi mmụta igwe nke ADHD na HC site na data serotonergic multimodal. Ntughari ndi mmadu, 10(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0781-2

Kerekes, N., Sanchéz-Pérez, AM, & Landry, M. (2021). Neuroinflammation dị ka njikọ dị n'etiti nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity (ADHD) na mgbu. Mkpụrụ Ahụike Ahụike, 157, 110717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110717

Khansari, N., Shakiba, Y., & Mahmoudi, M. (2009). Mbufụt na-adịghị ala ala na nrụgide oxidative dị ka isi ihe na-ebute ọrịa afọ na ọrịa kansa. Ikike ndị na-adịbeghị anya na nchọpụta ọzịza na ihe nfụkasị ahụ, 3(1), 73-80. https://doi.org/10.2174/187221309787158371

Kim, SW, Marosi, K., & Mattson, M. (2017). Ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate up-na-achịkwa okwu BDNF site na NF-κB dị ka nzaghachi mgbanwe megide ROS, nke nwere ike melite neuronal bioenergetics ma kwalite neuroprotection (P3.090). Nchọpụta ihe, 88(Mgbakwunye 16). https://n.neurology.org/content/88/16_Supplement/P3.090

Kovacic, P., & Weston, W. (nd). Nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity - usoro na-ejikọta ọnụ gụnyere ọgwụgwọ antioxidant: phenolics, ụdị oxygen na-emeghachi omume, na nrụgide oxidative.. 6.

Kovács, Z., D'Agostino, DP, diamond, D., Kindy, MS, Rogers, C., & Ari, C. (2019a). Enwere ike ọgwụgwọ nke Mgbakwunye Ketone Exogenous na-ebute ketosis na ọgwụgwọ ọrịa uche: Nyochaa akwụkwọ ugbu a. Frontiers na Psychiatry, 10, 363. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00363

Kovács, Z., D'Agostino, DP, diamond, D., Kindy, MS, Rogers, C., & Ari, C. (2019b). Enwere ike ọgwụgwọ nke Mgbakwunye Ketone Exogenous na-ebute ketosis na ọgwụgwọ ọrịa uche: Nyochaa akwụkwọ ugbu a. Frontiers na Psychiatry, 10, 363. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00363

Kronfol, Z., & Remick, DG (2000). Cytokines na Brain: Mmetụta maka ahụike uche. Akwụkwọ akụkọ American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(5), 683-694. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.5.683

Kul, M., Unal, F., Kandemir, H., Sarkarati, B., Kilinc, K., & Kandemir, SB (2015). Nyochaa Metabolism Oxidative n'ime ụmụaka na ndị ọrịa nọ n'afọ iri na ụma nwere ọgbaghara hyperactivity nlebara anya. Nyocha gbasara uche, 12(3), 361-366. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2015.12.3.361

Lee, YH, & Abụ, GG (2018). Meta-Analysis of case-Control and Family based Association N'etiti 5-HTTLPR L/S Polymorphism na Susceptibility na ADHD. Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke nsogbu nlebara anya, 22(9), 901-908. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054715587940

Liu, D.-Y., Shen, X.-M., Yuan, F.-F., Guo, O.-Y., Zhong, Y., Chen, J.-G., Zhu, L.- Q., & Wu, J. (2015a). Physiology nke BDNF na mmekọrịta ya na ADHD. Ọkpụkpụ Neurobiology, 52(3), 1467-1476. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-014-8956-6

Liu, D.-Y., Shen, X.-M., Yuan, F.-F., Guo, O.-Y., Zhong, Y., Chen, J.-G., Zhu, L.- Q., & Wu, J. (2015b). Physiology nke BDNF na mmekọrịta ya na ADHD. Ọkpụkpụ Neurobiology, 52(3), 1467-1476. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-014-8956-6

Liu, H., Wang, J., He, T., Becker, S., Zhang, G., Li, D., & Ma, X. (2018). Butyrate: Mma agha nwere ihu abụọ maka ahụike? Ọganihu na nri na-edozi ahụ (Bethesda, Md.), 9(1), 21-29. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmx009

Lussier, DM, Woolf, EC, Johnson, JL, Brooks, KS, Blattman, JN, & Scheck, AC (2016). Nri ketogenic na-agwọ ọrịa na-ebute ihe mgbochi n'ụdị òké nke glioma ọjọọ. Ọrịa BMC, 16(1), 310. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-016-2337-7

Maltezos, S., Horder, J., Coghlan, S., Skirrow, C., O'Gorman, R., Lavender, TJ, Mendez, MA, Mehta, M., Daly, E., Xenitidis, K., Paliokosta, E., Spain, D., Pitts, M., Asherson, P., Lythgoe, DJ, Barker, GJ, & Murphy, DG (2014). Glutamate / glutamine na neuronal iguzosi ike n'ezi ihe na ndị okenye nwere ADHD: Ọmụmụ MRS proton. Ntughari ndi mmadu, 4(3), e373 – e373. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2014.11

Mamiya, PC, Arnett, AB, & Stein, MA (2021a). Nlekọta ọgwụ ziri ezi na ADHD: Okwu maka mkpali akwara na mgbochi. Ahụike Brain, 11(1), 91. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010091

Mamiya, PC, Arnett, AB, & Stein, MA (2021b). Nlekọta ọgwụ ziri ezi na ADHD: Okwu maka mkpali akwara na mgbochi. Ahụike Brain, 11(1), 91. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010091

Martins, MR, Reinke, A., Petronilho, FC, Gomes, KM, Dal-Pizzol, F., & Quevedo, J. (2006). Ọgwụgwọ Methylphenidate na-ebute nrụgide oxidative na ụbụrụ oke oke. Research Brain, 1078(1), 189-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.01.004

Merker, S., Reif, A., Ziegler, GC, Weber, H., Mayer, U., Ehlis, A.-C., Conzelmann, A., Johansson, S., Müller-Reible, C., Nanda , I., Haaf, T., Ullmann, R., Romanos, M., Fallgatter, AJ, Pauli, P., Strekalova, T., Jansch, C., Vasquez, AA, Haavik, J., … Lesch, K.-P. (2017 a). SLC2A3 otu-nucleotide polymorphism na mbiputegharị na-emetụta nhazi ọgụgụ isi na ihe ize ndụ ndị mmadụ kpọmkwem maka nsogbu nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity. Journal of Psychology na isi mgbaka, 58(7), 798-809. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12702

Merker, S., Reif, A., Ziegler, GC, Weber, H., Mayer, U., Ehlis, A.-C., Conzelmann, A., Johansson, S., Müller-Reible, C., Nanda , I., Haaf, T., Ullmann, R., Romanos, M., Fallgatter, AJ, Pauli, P., Strekalova, T., Jansch, C., Vasquez, AA, Haavik, J., … Lesch, K.-P. (2017b). SLC2A3 otu-nucleotide polymorphism na mbiputegharị na-emetụta nhazi ọgụgụ isi na ihe ize ndụ ndị mmadụ kpọmkwem maka nsogbu nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity. Journal of Psychology na isi mgbaka, yana ntụnyere akparamagwa, 58(7), 798-809. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12702

Millenet, SK, Nees, F., Heintz, S., Bach, C., Frank, J., Volstädt-Klein, S., Bokde, A., Bromberg, U., Büchel, C., Quinlan, EB, Desrivières, S., Fröhner, J., Flor, H., Frouin, V., Garavan, H., Gowland, P., Heinz, A., Ittermann, B., Lemaire, H., … Hohmann, S. (2018). COMT Val158Met Polymorphism na Mmebi Ọha na Ọha na-emetụta Mkpakọrịta Nleba anya-Enweghị Nleba anya n'ime ndị ntorobịa ahụike. Oke na Genetics, 9, 284. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00284

Millicap, J. (1990). Metabolism nke cerebral glucose na ADHD. Nkọwa gbasara akwara ụmụaka, 4(11), 83-84. https://doi.org/10.15844/pedneurbriefs-4-11-4

Murphy, P., & Burnham, WM (2006). Nri ketogenic na-ebute mbelata ngbanwe nke ọkwa ọrụ na oke Long-Evans. Neurology nnwale, 201(1), 84-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2006.03.024

Neuroinflammation dị ka njikọ dị n'etiti nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity (ADHD) na mgbu | Onye na-agụ Elsevier emelitere. (nd). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110717

Nnyocha ọhụrụ na nri Keto na ọrịa erughi GLUT1. (2020, Febụwarị 19). Ketogenic.Com. https://ketogenic.com/glut1-deficiency-syndrome/

Nikolaidis, A., & Grey, JR (2010). ADHD na DRD4 exon III 7-megharịa polymorphism: meta-analysis nke mba ụwa. Nchọpụta Neuroscience Na-ahụ Maka Ọdịmma Ahụhụ, 5(2-3), 188-193. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsp049

Norwitz, NG, Hu, MT, & Clarke, K. (2019). Usoro nke ahụ Ketone D-β-Hydroxybutyrate nwere ike imeziwanye ọtụtụ ọrịa cellular nke ọrịa Parkinson. N'ihu Nri, 6, 63. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00063

Mmebi nri. (nd). BioMed Wellness Center. Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 6, 2022, site na https://wellnessbiomed.com/pages/nutrient-depletion

Paoli, A. (2020). Ọmụmụ ihe pilot: nri Ketogenic dị ka ihe nchekwa n'oge ọrịa SARS-CoV-2 (Ndebanye aha nnwale ụlọ ọgwụ No. NCT04615975). clinicaltrials.gov. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04615975

Peng, W., Tan, C., Mo, L., Jiang, J., Zhou, W., Du, J., Zhou, X., Liu, X., & Chen, L. (2021). Onye na-ebugharị glucose 3 na neuronal glucose metabolism: ahụike na ọrịa. Metabolism, 123, 154869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154869

Pizzino, G., Irrera, N., Cucinotta, M., Pallio, G., Mannino, F., Arcoraci, V., Squadrito, F., Altavilla, D., & Bitto, A. (2017). Nchegbu Oxidative: Nsogbu na Uru Maka Ahụ Ike Mmadụ. Ọgwụ Oxidative na Cellular Longevity, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8416763

Pizzorno, J. (2014). Mitochondria — Isi ihe na ndụ na ahụike. Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal, 13(2), 8.

Purkayastha, P., Malapati, A., Yogeeswari, P., & Sriram, D. (2015). Nyochaa na ụzọ GABA/Glutamate maka ọgwụgwọ ọgwụgwọ nke ASD na ADHD. Chemistry Ọgwụ Na-aganụ, 22(15), 1850-1859.

Tinye, NA, Ryan, M., Oeltzschner, G., Horska, A., Edden, RAE, & Mahone, EM (2020). Mbelata striatal GABA n'ime ụmụaka enweghị ọgwụ nwere ADHD na 7T. Nyocha Ọrịa Uche: Neuroimaging, 301, 111082. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111082

Réus, GZ, Scaini, G., Titus, SE, Furlanetto, CB, Wessler, LB, Ferreira, GK, Gonçalves, CL, Jeremias, GC, Quevedo, J., & Streck, EL (2015). Methylphenidate na-abawanye nnabata glucose na ụbụrụ ụmụ oke na ndị okenye. Akụkọ banyere ọgwụ, 67(5), 1033-1040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2015.03.005

Saccaro, LF, Schilliger, Z., Perroud, N., & Piguet, C. (2021). Mbufụt, Nchegbu, na Nchegbu na Nlebara anya-Enweghị/Ọgba aghara. Ọgwụ ọgwụ, 9(10), 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101313

Schmitz, F., Silveira, J., Venturin, G., Greggio, S., Schu, G., Zimmer, E., Dacosta, J., & Wyse, A. (2021). Ihe akaebe na ọgwụgwọ Methylphenidate na-akpalite nchekasị-dị ka omume site na Glucose Hypometabolism na ndakpọ nke netwọkụ Metabolic Orbitofrontal Cortex. Nnyocha Neurotoxicity, 39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-021-00444-9

Sengupta, SM, Grizenko, N., Thakur, GA, Bellingham, J., DeGuzman, R., Robinson, S., TerStepanian, M., Poloskia, A., Shaheen, SM, Fortier, M.-E., Choudhry, Z., & Joober, R. (2012). Njikọ dị iche n'etiti mkpụrụ ndụ ihe na-ebugharị norepinephrine na ADHD: Ọrụ nke mmekọahụ na ụdị subtype. Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN, 37(2), 129. https://doi.org/10.1503/jpn.110073

Seyedi, M., Gholami, F., Samadi, M., Djalali, M., Effatpanah, M., Yekaninejad, MS, Hashemi, R., Abdolahi, M., Chamari, M., & Honarvar, NM (2019) ). Mmetụta Vitamin D3 Mmeju na Serum BDNF, Dopamine, na Serotonin n'ime ụmụaka nwere nsogbu nlebara anya-Deficit/hyperactivity. CNS & Ọrịa Neurological - Ebumnuche ọgwụ - CNS & Ọrịa Neurological), 18(6), 496-501. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527318666190703103709

Sheehan, K., Lowe, N., Kirley, A., Mullins, C., Fitzgerald, M., Gill, M., & Hawi, Z. (2005). Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) gene variants jikọtara na ADHD. Ọrịa na-enweghị isi, 10(10), 944-949. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001698

Sigurdardottir, HL, Kranz, GS, Rami-Mark, C., James, GM, Vanicek, T., Gryglewski, G., Kautzky, A., Hienert, M., Traub-Weidinger, T., Mitterhauser, M. , Wadsak, W., Hacker, M., Rujescu, D., Kasper, S., & Lanzenberger, R. (2016). Mmetụta nke norepinephrine transporter gene variants na NET njikọ na ADHD na njikwa ahụike nke PET nyochara. Ihe Odide Ọkpụkpọ Mmadụ, 37(3), 884-895. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23071

Stilling, RM, van de Wouw, M., Clarke, G., Stanton, C., Dinan, TG, & Cryan, JF (2016). Neuropharmacology nke butyrate: achịcha na bọta nke microbiota-gut-ụbụrụ axis? Neurochemistry International, 99, 110-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2016.06.011

Striatum—Nlebanya | Isiokwu ScienceDirect. (nd). Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 7, 2022, site na https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/psychology/striatum

Stuart, CA, Ross, IR, Howell, MEA, McCurry, MP, Osisi, TG, Ceci, JD, Kennel, SJ, & Wall, J. (2011). Onye na-ebufe glucose ụbụrụ (Glut3) Haploinsufficiency anaghị emebi oke glucose ụbụrụ ụbụrụ. Research Brain, 1384, 15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.02.014

Neuropharmacology nke Ketogenic Diet na DuckDuckGo. (nd). Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 8, 2022, site na https://duckduckgo.com/?q=The+Neuropharmacology+of+the+Ketogenic+Diet&atb=v283-1&ia=web

Ułamek-Kozioł, M., Czuczwar, SJ, Januszewski, S., & Pluta, R. (2019). Nri Ketogenic na Akwụkwụ na-adọ. Nri, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102510

Vergara, RC, Jaramillo-Riveri, S., Luarte, A., Moënne-Loccoz, C., Fuentes, R., Couve, A., & Maldonado, PE (2019). Ụkpụrụ Homeostasis Energy: Iwu Neuronal Energy Regulation na-eme ka netwọkụ mpaghara na-emepụta omume. N'ókè nke Ngwá Ọrụ Neuroscience, 13. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2019.00049

Nri carbohydrate dị obere na-akwalite mgbochi T-cell mmadụ site na nhazigharị immunometabolic. (2021). OBODO EMBO, 13(8), e14323. https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202114323

Kedu ihe bụ xenobiotics na ihe atụ ha? (nd). Eweghachitere Jenụwarị 9, 2022, site na https://psichologyanswers.com/library/lecture/read/98518-what-are-xenobiotics-and-their-examples

Wiers, CE, Lohoff, FW, Lee, J., Muench, C., Freeman, C., Zehra, A., Marenco, S., Lipska, BK, Auluck, PK, Feng, N., Sun, H. , Goldman, D., Swanson, JM, Wang, G.-J., & Volkow, ND (2018). Methylation nke mkpụrụ ndụ ihe na-ebu dopamine n'ime ọbara jikọtara ya na nnweta ebugharị dopamine dị na ADHD: ọmụmụ mmalite. European Journal of Neuroscience, 48(3), 1884-1895. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14067

Włodarczyk, A., Wiglusz, MS, & Cubała, WJ (2018). Nri Ketogenic maka schizophrenia: Usoro nri maka ọgwụgwọ antipsychotic. Mkpụrụ Ahụike Ahụike, 118, 74-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2018.06.022

Xu, W., Gao, L., Li, T., Shao, A., & Zhang, J. (2018). Ọrụ Neuroprotective nke Agmatine na Ọrịa Neurological. Neuropharmacology dị ugbu a, 16(9), 1296. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X15666170808120633

Yokokura, M., Takebasashi, K., Takao, A., Nakaizumi, K., Yoshikawa, E., Futatsubashi, M., Suzuki, K., Nakamura, K., Yamasue, H., & Ouchi, Y. (2021). Na onyonyo vivo nke onye na-anabata dopamine D1 na microglia na-arụ ọrụ na nlebara anya-deficit / hyperactivity: Ọmụmụ ihe ọmụmụ tomography positron. Ọrịa na-enweghị isi, 26(9), 4958-4967. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0784-7

Zametkin, AJ, Nordahl, TE, Gross, M., King, AC, Semple, WE, Rumsey, J., Hamburger, S., & Cohen, RM (1990). Metabolism nke cerebral glucose na ndị okenye nwere hyperactivity nke mmalite nwata. The New England Journal of Medicine, 323(20), 1361-1366. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199011153232001

Zhang, S., Wu, D., Xu, Q., Ị, L., Zhu, J., Wang, J., Liu, Z., Yang, L., Tong, M., Hong, Q., & Chi, X. (2021). Mmetụta nchebe na usoro nwere ike nke NRXN1 na mmụta na ebe nchekwa na ụdị ADHD oke. Neurology nnwale, 344, 113806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113806

Zhou, R., Wang, J., Han, X., Ma, B., Yuan, H., & Song, Y. (2019). Baicalin na-achịkwa usoro dopamine iji chịkwaa isi mgbaàmà nke ADHD. Ụbụrụ Ogwu, 12(1), 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13041-019-0428-5

(Nd). eweghachite Jenụwarị 7, 2022, site na https://www.mind-diagnostics.org/blog/adhd/finding-the-connection-between-dopamine-and-adhd

Nkume a-aza

Ebe a na-eji Akismet iji belata spam. Mụta otu esi etinye usoro data gị.